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Six Sigma and Beyond

Jack Welch, the former chief executive officer of General Electric (GE), played a pivotal role in popularizing Six Sigma during his tenure at the helm of this multinational corporation. His unwavering commitment to this methodology is legendary, and Six Sigma significantly drove improvements within the company during the 1990s.


Welch, who passed away on March 1, 2020, at the age of 84, led GE from 1981 until 2000. Under his leadership, the company’s revenue soared fivefold, reaching an impressive $130 billion. Welch became a globally renowned CEO, and his biography, titled “Jack: Straight From The Gut,” sold a staggering 10 million copies worldwide. 


Jack Welch (1935-2020)

Six Sigma was a cornerstone of his strategy, with initiatives that included providing management training and helping key employees attain a high level of understanding of the Six Sigma methodologies.


Welch’s transformative impact on GE involved significant changes in the company’s operations. Drawing inspiration from Japanese business practices, he recognized that efficiency and effective systems were key to success. The Japanese had already demonstrated the power of continuous process improvement through methodologies like Lean and Six Sigma. Welch aimed to create a company filled with self-confident entrepreneurs who confronted reality daily. His managerial changes included:

  1. Eliminating Unnecessary Bureaucracy: Welch streamlined processes, reducing unnecessary layers of management.

  2. Globalizing GE’s Business: The company expanded its global footprint to meet growing customer demand.

  3. Emphasizing Finance: GE shifted focus from manufacturing industries where it couldn’t compete with the Japanese (such as televisions and small household appliances) to financial services.

  4. Inspirational Nuggets of Wisdom: Welch’s succinct advice included gems like “Control your destiny, or someone else will,” “Be candid with everyone,” “Bureaucrats must be ridiculed and removed,” and “If we wait for the perfect answer, the world will pass us by”.

Jack Welch’s legacy extends far beyond GE, and his association with Six Sigma continues to inspire organizations worldwide. Thanks to his leadership, Six Sigma is now considered a staple of good business practice, with over half of all Fortune 500 companies adopting this methodology.


Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools used to improve business processes. It was introduced in 1986 by engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola. The primary goal of Six Sigma is to reduce defects and errors, minimize variation, and enhance quality and efficiency within an organization.


In summary, Six Sigma provides a systematic framework for continuous improvement, making processes more efficient and effective across various industries.


Several prominent companies have successfully implemented Six Sigma methodologies to enhance their operations and achieve better performance. Here are a few notable examples:

  1. 3M: Known for innovation, 3M has effectively integrated Six Sigma into its processes.

  2. Amazon: The e-commerce giant has leveraged Six Sigma to optimize its supply chain, improve delivery times, and enhance customer satisfaction.

  3. BAE Systems: A defense, security, and aerospace company, BAE Systems has achieved excellence by integrating Lean Six Sigma practices.

  4. Bank of America: This multinational investment bank adopted Lean Six Sigma to enhance operational efficiency, reduce waste, and improve customer satisfaction.

These companies have reaped benefits such as waste reduction, increased productivity, improved customer satisfaction, and financial gains through their Six Sigma initiatives.

Source: Welch, J. and Byrne, J.A. (2001) Jack: Straight from the gut. New York, NY: Warner Books.

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